Thursday, August 22, 2019

I need help with the book called warriors dont cry Essay Example for Free

I need help with the book called warriors dont cry Essay Oluwatemi Kukoyi December 3. 2013 English Period 7 Gang Violence: Death of a Friend In the united States, there are over 1. 4 million gang members. With such small percentage of the U. S, their the reason why most kids such as Isaac Johnson, 17 years old killed by the crossfire; are fearing for their life every day. They say dont blame the streets, blame the people in it. I look back, and see all the Hard work America have done to change the life styles of Gang Bangers. Based on the results, on the streets. d what the Media have been embracing, it seems that America have been doing absolutely nothing. His name was Mike. I usually wouldnt say not Like Mike as of In the movie, but, in this case, he was Like Mike All he wanted to do was play Basketball, There was never a time when he was bored, because basketball is what hell be playing. He was smart on the streets but, not too bright when it came down to books. He was my best friend, my right hand man, every time I looked at his face, I see a wallet full of enJamln bills, because I knew with his talent, and he would make It to the real court (NBA). The court raised him, but, the streets changed him. Mike hated school. He would accept graduating with Ds down his report card, and be proud of It. He didnt care. He was only in it, to Just get out of his life. I use to see mike outside around the corner sometimes, smoking weed, and with gang affiliates. remember It like It was yesterday, or 5 minutes ago. I was home, waking up from a nap from school. I went in the kitchen to get a nice cold bowl cereal. The phone rang. One of my good friends whispered through the phone in a dreadful tone that mike was died. And when heard that, it felt like I have died also. walked in my bed with a limp of sorrow, and just cried. I swallowed my Machoness and swallowed my pride. I felt as If I was handicap. That my right hand man was killed, that the pain will never go away. skipped school for weeks. My mind was full of questions. At that point, I really didnt care, but for only to get my friend back. I need help with the book called warriors dont cry by melba beals By Jamesthegreatl 2 Oluwafemi Kukoyi December 3,2013 In the United States, there are over 1. million gang members. With such small streets, and what the Media have been embracing, it seems that America have been His name was Mike. I usually wouldnt say not Like Mike as of in the movie, but, in this case, he was Like Mike All he wanted to do was play Basketball. There was never a time when he was bored, because basketball is what hell be playing. He was benJamin bills, because I knew with his talent, and he would make it to the real court ccep t graduating with Ds down his report card, and be proud of it. He didnt care. I remember it like it was yesterday, or 5 minutes ago. I was home, waking up from mike was died. And when I heard that, it felt like I have died also. I walked in my bed with a limp of sorrow, and Just cried. I swallowed my Machoness and swallowed my pride. I felt as if I was handicap. That my right hand I skipped school for weeks. My mind was full of questions. At that point, I really didnt care, but for only to get my friend back.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

A Raisin In The Sun English Literature Essay

A Raisin In The Sun English Literature Essay Who is Lorraine Vivian Hansberry? Lorraine was born In Chicago on May 19, 1930 She based most of her novels on her life, she was 28 years old when she wrote her first play A Raisin in the Sun which won The Drama Critics Award for best play of the year and made Hansberry the first black, youngest person, and fifth woman to win that prize. She was the youngest of four children Carl, Jr., Perry, and Mammie. Her parents were well educated successful black citizens who publicly fought discrimination against black people. Her father, Carl Augustus Hansberry, Sr., was from Gloucester, Mississippi, he moved to Chicago after attending Alcorn College, and became known as the kitchenette king after subdividing large homes that were vacated by whites who were moving to the suburbs he then sold these small apartments or kitchenettes to African American migrants from the South. Hansberrys mother, Nannie Perry, a schoolteacher and, later, ward committeewoman, was from Tennessee. At the time of Lorr aines birth, she had become an influential society matron who hosted major cultural and literary figures such as Paul Robeson, Langston Hughes, and Joe Louis. Lorraine and her siblings enjoyed privileges unknown to their schoolmates; the parents filled their children with racial pride and civic responsibility. They founded the Hansberry Foundation; an organization designed to inform African Americans of their civil rights, they also encouraged their children to challenge the segregation policies of local restaurants and stores. (Cliffnotes, James, Rosetta). When Hansberry was a child she and her family lived in a black neighborhood on Chicagos Southside. During this time segregation enforced the separation of whites and blacks which was still legal and spreaded throughout the South, Northern States. This was including Hansberrys own Hometown Illinois. Carl and Nannie Hansberry challenged defensive real estate agreements by moving into an all-white neighborhood. Hansberrys family became one of the first to move into an all white neighborhood but, a mob of whites gathered in front of the house and threw a brick through the front window, narrowly missing eight-year-old Lorraine this forced the family to move out. Her father won a narrow victory over restrictive agreements from the Supreme Court, but the decision failed to set examples on their issue. Hansberry still attended Betsy Ross Elementary and Englewood High School even though her family stayed in a all white neighborhood it didnt change her right to get a education with all the other white kids because of her skin color she still had to attend a segregated public school for blacks .Lorraine Hansberry became interested in theater in high school, and pursued this interest in college. Her familys move into a restricted white neighborhood in 1937 helped her battle with injustice; this filled her with a sense of social activism. Their struggle would become the subject of her first major play. Departing from the family tradition of attending black colleges, Hansberry enrolled at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, a predominantly white university, to study journalism, but became equally attracted to the visual arts while she was there. She also attended the University of Wisconsin and the Art Institute of Chicago and studied in Guadalajara, Mexico, from 1948 to 1950. She became more politically active after moving to New York City and writing for freedom magazine. While participating in a demonstration at New York University, she met Robert Barron Nemiroff, the son of progressive Russian Jewish immigrants, and after a short intimate relationship, she married him on June 20, 1953. After having earned his masters degree four months earlier at New York University, he had begun writing a book on Theodore Dreiser, The young couple moved to Greenwich Village and Hansberry began to write massively about the people and lifestyles that she observed around her. She was already an experienced writer and editor, having published articles, essays, and poetry in Freedom, New Challenge Magazine and other political magazines.(Shmoop, A raisin in the Sun). After leaving Freedom in 1953 to concentrate on her writing, Hansberry worked various odd jobs including tagger in the garment industry, typist, program director at Camp Unity (an interracial summer camp), recreation leader for the physically disabled, and teacher at the Marxist-oriented Jefferson School for Social Science. When her husband co-wrote Cindy Oh Cindy (1956), a ballad that became an instant hit, the profits freed Hansberry to devote her full energies to a play about a struggling, working-class black family, like the families who rented her fathers properties on Chicagos South Side A Raisin In the Sun . A Raisin In the Sun reflects the frustrations of a black family whose dreams of economic progress have been let down in 1961, it was produced as a film with most of the original cast and won a special award at the Cannes Film Festival. During this period, Hansberry was much in demand as a public speaker. She expressed her belief that art is social and that black writers m ust address all issues of humankind. As the civil rights movement climaxed, she helped to organize fund-raising activities in support of organizations such as the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), called for the abolition of the House Un-American Activities Committee, and declared that President John E. Kennedy had endangered world peace during the Cuban Missile Crisis.(Answers.com, A raisin in the Sun). During the last four years of her life, Hansberry worked hard on several plays. The Sign in Sidney Brusteins Window was produced on Broadway in 1964, but critics were less open to this play that challenged the Greenwich Village intellectuals. During its short run, Hansberry battled pancreatic cancer, diagnosed in 1963. She died on 12 January 1965, the same night that her play closed.(Grade Saver, Sherrod, Cheryl.Berkow, Jordan). Lorraine Hansberry left behind several plays some are listed below: (Answers.com, A raisin in the Sun). Nonfiction the Movement: Documentary of a Struggle for Equality, Simon Schuster, 1964. To Be Young, Gifted and Black: Lorraine Hansberry in Her Own Words, introduction by James Baldwin, Prentice-Hall, 1969. Plays A Raisin in the Sun, opened in New Haven and Philadelphia, moved to Chicago, then produced on Broadway at the Ethel Barrymore Theater, March 11, 1959; published by New American Library, 1961. Les Blancs, single scene staged at Actors Studio Workshop, New York, 1963; two-act play produced at Long acre Theater, New York City, 1970. The Sign in Sidney Brusteins Window produced on Broadway, 1964; published by Random House, 1965. Lorraine Hansberrys A Raisin in the Sun and The Sign in Sidney Brusteins Window, New American Library, 1966. To Be Young, Gifted and Black, adapted for the stage by Robert Nemiroff, first produced at the Cherry Lane Theater, January 2, 1969; acting edition published by Samuel French, 1971. Les Blancs: The Collected Last Plays of Lorraine Hansberry, edited by Robert Nemiroff, introduction by Julius Lester, Random House, 1972, reprinted, New American Library, 1983. Lorraine Hansberry: The Collected Last Plays (Les Blancs, The Drinking Gourd, What Use Are Flowers?), edited by Robert Nemiroff, New American Library, 1983. Other (Answers.com, A raisin in the Sun). A Raisin in the Sun: The Unfilmed Original Screenplay, edited by Robert Nemiroff, Plume, 1992. All the Dark and Beautiful Warriors, an unfinished novel. Author of about two dozen articles for Freedom, 1951-55, and over 25 essays for other publications, including the Village Voice, New York Times, New York Times Magazine, Freedom ways, Mademoiselle, Ebony, Playbill, Show, Theatre Arts, Black Scholar, Monthly Review, and Annals of Psychotherapy. Books (Answers.com, A raisin in the Sun). Abramson, Doris E., Negro Playwrights in the American Theatre, 1925-1959, Columbia University Press, 1969, pp. 165-266. Black Literature Criticism, Gale, 1992. Carter, Steven R., Hansberrys Drama: Commitment amid Complexity, University of Illinois Press, 1991. Cheney, Anne, Lorraine Hansberry, Twayne, 1984. Davis, Arthur P., From the Dark Tower: Afro-American Writers, 1900-1960, Howard University Press, pp. 203-07. Hansberry, Lorraine, To Be Young, Gifted and Black: Lorraine Hansberry in Her Own Words, introduction by James Baldwin, Penguin Books, 1969. Hansberry, Lorraine, A Raisin in the Sun: The Unfilmed Original Screenplay, edited by Robert Nemiroff, foreword by Jewell Handy Gresham-Nemiroff, commentary by Spike Lee, Penguin Books USA, 1992. Periodicals (Answers.com, A raisin in the Sun). Black American Literature Forum, spring 1983, pp. 8-13. Commentary, June 1959, pp. 527-30. Freedom ways (special issue), 19:4, 1979. New Yorker, May 9, 1959. New York Times, January 13, 1965; October 5, 1983, p. C24. New York Times Review of Books, March 31, 1991, p. 25. Theatre Journal, December 1986, pp. 441-52. Time, January 22, 1965. Village Voice, August 12, 1959, pp. 7-8. Washington Post, November 17, 1986, p. D1. Hansberry wrote that she always felt the tendency to record her experiences her sense of history and the confusing role of women in history are also shown in her work. She was named most promising playwright. Raisin in the Sun ran for 530 performances from 1959 to 1965; A Raisin in the Sun was a play that Lorraine based on her life while living n Chicago during segregation.(Sparknotes,A raisin in the Sun). It talked about the life of a family called the Youngers some other characters Include: Walter Lee Younger  Ã‚  The central character of the play. Walter is a dreamer. He wants to be rich and devises plans to acquire wealth with his friends, particularly Willy Harris. When the play opens, he wants to invest his fathers insurance money in a new liquor store venture. He spends the rest of the play endlessly preoccupied with discovering a quick solution to his familys various  problems. Beneatha Younger (Bennie)  Ã‚  Mamas daughter and Walters sister. Beneatha is an intellectual. Twenty years old, she attends college and is better educated than the rest of the Younger family. Some of her personal beliefs and views have distanced her from conservative Mama. She dreams of being a doctor and struggles to determine her identity as a well-educated black woman. Lena Younger (Mama)  Ã‚  Walter and Beneathas mother. The head of the family, Mama is religious, moral, and caring. She wants to use her husbands insurance money as a down payment on a house with a backyard to fulfill her dream for her family to move up in the  world. Ruth Younger  Ã‚  Walters wife and Traviss mother. Ruth takes care of the Youngers small apartment. Her marriage to Walter has problems, but she hopes to rekindle their love. She is about thirty, but her weariness makes her seem older. Constantly fighting poverty and domestic troubles, she continues to be an emotionally strong woman. Her almost unenthusiastic sarcasm helps her to survive. Travis Younger  Ã‚  Walter and Ruths sheltered young son. Travis earns some money by carrying grocery bags and likes to play outside with other neighborhood children, but he has no bedroom and sleeps on the living-room sofa. Joseph Asagai  Ã‚  A Nigerian student in love with Beneatha. Asagai, as he is often called, is very proud of his African heritage, and Beneatha hopes to learn about her African heritage from him. He eventually proposes marriage to Beneatha and hopes she will return to Nigeria with him. George Murchison  Ã‚  A wealthy, African-American man who courts Beneatha. The Youngers approve of George, but Beneatha dislikes his willingness to submit to white culture and forget his African heritage. He challenges the thoughts and feelings of other black people through his arrogance and flair for intellectual competition. Mr. Karl Lindner  Ã‚  The only white character in the play. Mr. Lindner arrives at the Youngers apartment from the Clybourne Park Improvement Association. He offers the Youngers a deal to reconsider moving into his (all-white) neighborhood. Bobo  Ã‚  One of Walters partners in the liquor store plan. Bobo appears to be as mentally slow as his name indicates. Willy Harris  Ã‚  A friend of Walter and coordinator of the liquor store plan. Willy never appears onstage, which helps keep the focus of the story on the dynamics of the Younger family. Mrs. Johnson  Ã‚  The Youngers neighbor. Mrs. Johnson takes advantage of the Youngers hospitality and warns them  about moving into an all white  neighborhood. A Raisin In the Sun portrays a few weeks in the life of the Youngers, an African-American family living on the South Side of Chicago in the 1950s. When the play opens, the Youngers are about to receive an insurance check for $10,000. This money comes from the deceased Mr. Youngers life insurance policy. Each of the adult members of the family has an idea as to what he or she would like to do with this money. The head of the family, Mama, wants to buy a house to fulfill a dream she shared with her husband. Mamas son, Walter Lee, would rather use the money to invest in a liquor store with his friends. He believes that the investment will solve the familys financial problems forever. Walters wife, Ruth, agrees with Mama, however, and hopes that she and Walter can provide more space and opportunity for their son, Travis. Finally, Beneatha, Walters sister and Mamas daughter, wants to use the money for her medical school tuition. She also wishes that her family members were not so interest ed in joining the white world. Beneatha instead tries to find her identity by looking back to the past and to Africa. As the play progresses, the Youngers clash over their competing dreams. Ruth discovers that she is pregnant but fears that if she has the child, she will put more financial pressure on her family members. When Walter says nothing to Ruths admission that she is considering abortion, Mama puts a down payment on a house for the whole family. She believes that a bigger, house will benefit them all. The Youngers future neighbors find out that they are moving to an all white neighborhood, and they send Mr. Lindner, from the Clybourne Park Improvement Association, to offer the Youngers money in return for staying away. The Youngers refuse the deal, even after Walter loses the rest of the money to his friend Willy Harris, who persuades Walter to invest in the liquor store and then runs off with his cash. In the meantime, Beneatha rejects George Murchison, who she believes to be shallow and blind to the problems of race. She receives a marriage proposal from her Nigerian boyfriend, Joseph Asagai, who wants Beneatha to get a medical degree and move to Africa with him. The Youngers eventually move out of the apartment, fulfilling the familys long-held dream. Their future seems uncertain and slightly dangerous, but they are determined to live a better life. They believe that they can succeed if they stick together as a family and resolve to defer their dreams no longer. During Act 1 Scene 1 of the play which is entitled Friday Morning it is morning at the Youngers apartment. Their small home on the South Side of Chicago has two bedrooms one for Mama and Beneatha, and one for Ruth and Walter Lee. Travis sleeps on the couch in the living room. The only window is in their small kitchen, and they share a bathroom in the hall with their neighbors. Ruth is the first one in the house to wake up so she starts to cook breakfast and this awakes Walter and Travis while Travis is getting ready Walter and Ruth talk in the kitchen they do not seem happy as they engage in some slight humor they keep mentioning a check Walter scans the front page of the newspaper and reads that another bomb was set off, and Ruth responds with anger. Travis asks them for money he is supposed to bring fifty cents to school and Ruth says that they do not have it. His constant nagging quickly irritates her. Walter, however, gives Travis an entire dollar while staring at Ruth. Travis th en leaves for school, and Walter tells Ruth that he wants to use the check to invest in a liquor store with a few of his friends. Walter and Ruth continue to argue about their unhappy lives.(Bookrags, A raisin in the Sun). Act 1 Scene 2 The Following Morning The next day, Saturday, the Youngers are cleaning their apartment and waiting for the insurance check to arrive. Walter receives a phone call from his friend Willy Harris, who is coordinating the potential liquor store investment. It appears that their plan is moving smoothly. The insurance check is all Walter needs to pursue his liquor store. He promises to bring the money to Willy when he receives it. Meanwhile, Beneatha is spraying the apartment with insecticide in an attempt to get rid of cockroaches. Beneatha and Travis start fighting, and Beneatha threatens him with the spray gun. The phone rings, and Beneatha answers. She invites the person on the phone over to the still-dirty apartment, without concerning Mama. After hanging up, Beneatha explains to Mama that the man she has spoken to on the phone is Joseph Asagai, an African intellectual whom Beneatha has met at school. She and Mama discuss Beneathas worries about her familys ignorance abo ut Africa and African people. Ruth returns from seeing a doctor, who has told her that she is two months pregnant. She reveals this information to Mama and Beneatha. Walter returns home and wants to talk about his liquor store plans. Ruth wants to discuss her pregnancy with him and becomes upset when he will not listen.(Cummings study guide, A raisin in the Sun). Act 2 Scene 1 Later that same day Later on the same Saturday, Beneatha comes out from her room dressed in the Nigerian clothes that Asagai has brought her. She dances around the apartment, claiming to be performing a tribal dance while shouting OCOMOGOSIAY and singing. Mama comes home and announces that she has put a down payment on a house with some of the insurance money. Ruth is happy to hear this news because she too dreams of moving out of their current apartment and into a more spacious home. Meanwhile, Walter is noticeably upset because he wants to put all the money into the liquor store. They all become worried when they hear that the house is in Clybourne Park, an entirely white neighborhood. Mama asks for their understanding it was the only house that they could afford. She feels she needs to buy the house to hold the family together. Ruth regains her pleasure and rejoices, but Walter feels betrayed, his dream swept under the table. Walter makes Mama feel guilty, saying tha t she has crushed his dream. He goes quickly to his bedroom, and Mama remains sitting and worrying.(enotes, Marie Rose Naiper Kowski). Act 2 Scene 2 Friday Night a few weeks later On a Friday night a few weeks later, Beneatha and George return from a date. The Youngers apartment is full of moving boxes. George wants to kiss Beneatha, but she does not want to kiss. She wants to engage George in a conversation about the life of African-Americans. It seems that George wants to marry a nice, simple, sophisticated girl. Mama comes in as Beneatha kicks him out Mrs. Johnson the Youngers neighbor visits. Mama and Ruth offer her food and drink, and she gladly accepts. She has come to visit to tell them about a black family who has been bombed out of their home in a white neighborhood. Walters boss calls, telling Ruth that Walter has not been to work in three days. Walter explains that he has been wandering all day (often way into the country) and drinking all night (at a bar with a jazz duo that he loves). He says that he feels depressed, and useless as the man of the family(Sparknotes,A raisin in the Sun). Act 2 Scene 3 Saturday moving day, one week later On Saturday, a week later, it is moving day. Ruth shows Beneatha the curtains she has bought for the new house and tells her that the first thing she is going to do in their new house is take a long bath in their very own bathroom. Ruth comments on the changed mood around the household, noting that she and Walter even went out to the movies and held hands the previous evening. Walter comes in and dances with Ruth. Beneatha teases them about acting in a stereotypical fashion but does not really mean any harm. A middle-aged white man named Karl Lindner appears at the door. He is a representative from the Clybourne Park Improvement Association, and he tells the Youngers that problems arise when different kinds of people do not sit down and talk to each other. The Youngers agree, until he reveals that he and the neighborhood coalition believe that the Youngers presence in Clybourne Park would destroy the community there. When Mama comes h ome, Walter, Ruth, and Beneatha tell her about Mr. Lindners visit. It shocks and worries her, but she supports their decision to refuse the buyout offer. Then, as she is making sure that her plant is well packed for the trip, the rest of the family surprises her with gifts of gardening tools and a huge gardening hat. Mama has never received presents other than at Christmas, and she is touched by her familys generosity. Just as the whole family begins to celebrate, Bobo, one of Walters friends, arrives. After some stumbling, he announces that Willy Harris has run off with all of the money that Walter invested in the liquor store deal. It turns out that Walter had invested not only his $3,500 but also the $3,000 intended for Beneathas education. Mama is angry and begins to beat Walter in the face. Beneatha breaks them up. Weakness overcomes Mama, and she thinks about the hard labor her husband endured in order to earn the money for them. She prays heavily for strength.(123 help me, A raisin in the Sun). Act 3 An hour later One hour later on moving day, everyone is still unhappy. Walter sits alone and thinks. Asagai comes to help them pack and finds Beneatha questioning her choice of becoming a doctor. She no longer believes that she can help people. Mama enters and announces that they are not going to move. Ruth protests. Walter returns, having called Mr. Lindner and invited him back to the apartment he intends to take his offer of money in exchange for not moving to Clybourne Park. Everyone objects to this plan, arguing that they have too much pride to accept not being able to live somewhere because of their race. Walter, very agitated, puts on an act, imitating the stereotype of a black male servant. When he finally exits, Mama declares that he has died inside. Beneatha decides that he is no longer her brother, but Mama reminds her to love him, especially when he feels hopeless.(Pink Monkey, Sauder,Dianne). The movers and Mr. Lindner arrive. Mama tells Walter to deal with Mr. Lindner, who is laying out contracts for Walter to sign. Walter starts hesitantly, but soon we see that he has changed his mind about taking Mr. Lindners money. His speech builds in power. He tells Mr. Lindner that the Youngers are proud and hardworking and intend to move into their new house. Mr. Lindner appeals to Mama, who defers to Walters statement. Ultimately, Mr. Lindner leaves with his papers unsigned. Everyone finishes packing up as the movers come to take the furniture. Mama tells Ruth that she thinks Walter has finally become a man by standing up to Mr. Lindner. Ruth agrees and is noticeably proud of her husband. Mama, who is the last to leave, looks for a moment at the empty apartment. Then she leaves, bringing her plant with her.(Cliffnotes, James Rosetta). While reading a raisin in the sun I came to a conclusion that it is essentially about dreams, as the main characters struggle to deal with the depressive circumstances that rule their lives. The title of the play refers to a line that Langston Hughes famously said in a poem he wrote about dreams that were forgotten or put off. He wonders whether those dreams shrivel up like A raisin in the Sun. Every member of the Younger family has a separate, individual dream Beneatha wants to become a doctor, for example, and Walter wants to have money so that he can afford things for his family. The Youngers struggle to attain these dreams throughout the play, and much of their happiness and depression is directly related to their achievement of, or failure to attain, these dreams. As the play progressed The Youngers eventually move out of the apartment, fulfilling the familys long-held dream. Their future seems uncertain and slightly dangerous, but they are determined to live a better life. They believe that they can succeed if they stick together as a family. By the end of the play, they learn that the dream of a house is the most important dream because it unites the family, And so did I.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Bilayer Organic Solar Cell in MATLAB

Bilayer Organic Solar Cell in MATLAB Chapter 3 Modelling and Simulation 3.1 Introduction This thesis is based on simulation of design characteristic of bilayer organic solar cell in MATLAB so it is very essential to be familiar with modelling and simulation. This chapter explains about modelling and simulation, characteristics of simulation, mathematical modelling (analytical and numerical both) and its properties, electrical modelling, work done in the field of modelling and simulation of OSC and finally small introduction of MATLAB which shows it’s features because of which this simulation work is in MATLAB. 3.2 Modelling and Simulation Modelling and simulation [1-4] is obtaining related data about how something will act without really trying it in real life. MS is using models either statically or over time, to build up data as a basis for making technical decisions. The terms modelling and simulation are often used interchangeably. Simulation skill is the tool set of engineers of each and every application domains and included in the knowledge body of engineering management. Modelling and simulation is a regulation on its own. With the addition of dynamic factor, simulation systems develop their functionality and allow to calculate predictions, estimates, optimization and what-if analyses. The meaningful abstraction of reality, follow-on in the proper necessity of a conceptualization and fundamental assumptions and constraints, is known as modelling. Simulation is execution of a model over time. Conceptualization is targeted by modelling, means modelling belongs to abstraction level and implementation is targeted by simulation, means simulation belongs to implementation level. Conceptualization (modelling) and implementation (simulation)– are the two activities that are jointly dependent, but can nevertheless be conducted by separate individuals. Modelling and simulation has helped to reduce expenses, enhance the feature of products and systems, and document. 3.2.1 Features of Simulation Interest in simulation applications are increasing gradually because of the following reasons- Use of simulation is cheaper and safer as compared to conduction of experiment. As compared to the conventional experiments, simulations can be more realistic because it permits free formation of surroundings parameters that are obtained in the active application area of the final product. As compared to real time, execution of simulation is faster because of this quality it can be used in if-then-else analysis of unlike alternatives, in particular when the essential information to initialize the simulation can simply be founded from functioning data. Tool box of conventional decision support system is being added a decision support simulation system with the use of simulation. Set up of a coherent synthetic environment is permitted by simulation which allows addition of simulated systems in the premature analysis phase through mixed virtual systems with virtual check surrounding to first prototypical elements for concluded system. If managed perfectly, the surrounding can be migrated from the growth and test domain to the domain of training and learning in resulting life cycle phases for the systems. 3.2.2 Steps for Modelling For modelling four basic steps are as follows †¢ Step 1: Monitor – In the first step conceptual model of ground profile and job objectives are developed. †¢ Step 2: Measure – In the second step theoretical model is developed which is used to explain the main processes running in the problem. †¢ Step 3: Describe – In the third step mathematical explanation of these processes are developed and to get a perfect solution verification is also done. †¢ Step 4: Verify – In the fourth step under the light of experimental physical reality, results of mathematical expression is interpretated. Confirm the suggestion, get additional measurements, enhance the complexity or precision of the mathematical result, or modify your conceptual understanding until you have complete understanding of the physical actuality. 3.3 Mathematical Modelling Fig 3.1, shows the simplest explanation of modelling – the method through which we can take out a complex physical actuality from a suitable mathematical reality on which designing of system is based. Development of suitable mathematical expression is done in numerical modelling. Mathematical modelling is a group of mathematical expressions that show the variation of a system from one state to another state (differential equations) and dependence of one variable to the other variable (state equations). The use of mathematical words to describe the performance of a system is mathematical modelling. Performance of photovoltaic system [5-7] is also illustrated by mathematical modelling. Number of different parameters (like – series and shunt resistance, ideality factor, reverse saturation current, open circuit voltage, short circuit current, fill factor, photo-generated current, efficiency) of photovoltaic system can be calculated by mathematical modelling. Fig. 3.1: Simple definition of modelling. 3.3.1 Properties of Mathematical Modelling We prefer mathematical modelling because of the following reasons With the help of mathematical model we can understand and investigate the meaning of equations and useful relations. It becomes very simple to make a educational environment in which preliminary person can be interactively occupied in guided inquiry and hands on actions with the help of mathematical modelling software (like – Stella II, Excel, online JAVA, MATLAB). Mathematical model is build up after the development of conceptual model of physical system. It is used to calculate approximately the quantitative presentation of the system. In order to spot a model’s strengths and weaknesses, quantitative outcomes obtained from mathematical modelling can be compared with observational information. The most important element of the resultant â€Å"complete model† of a system is mathematical model. Complete model is an assembly of theoretical, physical, numerical, visualization and statistical sub-models. 3.4 Types of Mathematical Modelling These can also be divided into either numerical models and analytical models. 3.4.1 Numerical Modelling – It is one of the type of mathematical modelling in which numerical time stepping method is used to obtain model response over time. Results are presented in the form of graph or table. In this thesis numerical modelling is used to analysis the design characteristic of Bilayer Organics Solar Cell. 3.4.2 Analytical Modelling – Modelling having a closed form results is called analytical modelling. In closed form results, mathematical analytic functions are used to present the response to the equations that describe variation in a system. 3.5 Electrical Modelling In this section, the electrical model for bilayer organic solar cell is described. One of the important characteristics of organic materials is their extremely small mobility, which makes modelling of their electrical properties difficult. Another problem in the electrical modelling of organic thin film devices (e. g. planar organic solar cells) was the lack of unique and precise electrical parameters for very thin layers of materials and occasionally lack of any information. Here with the aid of a self consistent loop between the Poisson equation and continuity equations for electrons and holes, the I-V curve of the device is calculated. It is assumed that the electrical current is due to the drift-diffusion transport of carrier. Consequently, in order to model the drift diffusion equations, a self consistent loop between the solutions of Poissons equation and two separate continuity equations for electrons and holes is needed. The design of the loop should be in a way such that the solution of each equation can be used as the initial conditions for the others, to generate a self correcting mechanism. The model that is used is based on the following assumptions: The generated excitons are separated right after absorption and the numbers of the generated electron-hole pairs are directly imported into the continuity equations as the generation rate . The transport properties of the organic materials can be totally modelled by mobility, DOS, bimolecular recombination term and doping levels. The connections between different layers follow the physical rules of hetero-junction connections between conventional semiconductors interfaces. The other two equations, which are solved in a closed loop with the mentioned Poisson equation, are two separate continuity equations one for the electrons and one for the holes. The flowchart of the electrical model using the mentioned equations is shown in Fig. 3.2. Fig. 3.2 : Flowchart of electrical model. 3.6 Work Done in Modelling and Simulation of OSC Pettersson et al (1999)[8] have reported a model based on the experimental short circuit light generated current action spectrum of poly(3-(4’-(1†,4†,7†-trioxaoctyl)phenyl)thiophene) (PEOPT)/C60 fullerene hetero-junction photovoltaic devices. This modelling was completely based on the assumption that generation process of photocurrent is the result of creation, diffusion and dissociation of excitons. Using complex refractive indices and layer thickness, internal optical electric field was computed. We got values for exciton diffusion length of 4.7 and 7.7 nm for PEOPT C60 respectively. Computed photocurrent and electric field distribution were used to study the effect of geometrical architecture with respect to the efficiency of device. Cheknane et al (2007)[9] has reported a photovoltaic cell in which photo-active layer of MDMO-PPV and PCBM material is sandwiched between ITO and Al electrodes, there is an additional interfacial layer of PEDOT/PSS on the top of ITO. Comparision between V-I characteristics of device with and without extra interfacial layer is done and modelled by electrical equivalent circuit. Simulation results show that V-I characteristics of bulk hetero-junction solar cell is affected by extra interfacial layer of PEDOT/PSS. Hwang et al (2007)[10] has reported drift-diffusion time dependent model of OSC based on blends of P3HT and red polyfluorene copolymer. In this model electron trapping and field dependent charge separation is used to investigate the device physics. This model is used to reproduce practical light-generated current transients observed in response to variable intensity step function excited light. Vervisch et al (2011)[11] has reported OSCs simulation using finite element method. Using finite difference time domain process, optical modelling is done and electrical characteristics is obtained by solving Poisson’s and continuity equations. Simulation results show the effect of physical parameters like exciton lifetime on OSC performance. Casalegno et al (2013)[12] has reported numerical approaches that give valuable information of microscopic processes underlying generation of photo-current in OSC. Here 3D master equation approach is used in which equations explaining particle dynamics rely on mean field guess and result is obtained numerically. Reliability of this method is tested against Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation method. V-I curve shows that the result of this method is very close to the exact result. Because of the adoption of mean field approximation for electrostatic interactions, we get biggest deviation in current densities. Strong energy disorder can also affect response quality. Simulation results show that master equation approach is faster than Kinetic Monte Carlo approach. Foster et al (2013)[13] presented a drift-diffusion model to obtain V-I curves and equivalent circuit parameters of bilayer organic solar cell. Minority carrier densities are neglected and final equations are solved with internal boundary condition on material interface and ohmic boundary condition on contacts. From the solution of this model V-I curves are calculated. 3.7 Introduction to MATLAB MATLAB [13] is a high performance language for technical computing. It integrates calculation, visualization and programming in a simple to use surroundings where troubles and solutions are presented in well-known mathematical notation. MATLAB can solve technical computing troubles faster than conventional programming language (like – Forton, C, C++). Typical uses include – Financial modeling and investigation Computational biology Math and computation algorithm development Data acquisition modeling Simulation and prototyping data study Exploration and visualization Graphics application development for scientific and engineering field Graphical user interface building Matrix laboratory is the full form of MATLAB. Basic data element in MATLAB is an array which does not need dimensioning. With the help of MATLAB number of technical computing troubles mainly those with vector and matrix formulations can be solved in a fraction of time. Basically it was written to give simple access to matrix software. For advance science, mathematics, engineering field and high productivity industrial research, progress and study MATLAB is very important instruction tool. Comprehensive collection of MATLAB functions are toolbox. Toolboxes of MATLAB permit us to study and apply specific technology. Toolboxes are available in different areas like – neural network, communication, signal processing, fuzzy logic, simulation, control system and many others. Differential equations are solved very easily in MATLAB [14-17]. We can also do modeling and simulation of solar cell using MATLAB [18,19]. 3.8 Conclusions This chapter explains about modelling and simulation. Presentation of physical configuration or activities of device by conceptual mathematical model that approximates this behavior, is called modeling. Model may either be closed form equation or arrangement of simultaneous equations that are numerically solved. Analytical and numerical both type of analysis can be used in modeling. Simulation is process of imitating the physical system behavior by considering the characteristic of an analogous but different system without resorting direct practical experimentation. For simulation we are using MATLAB which is a high performance technical computing language. We get that MATLAB integrates calculation, programming and visualization in a simple to use surroundings where mathematical expressions are used to express troubles and solutions. Because of all these qualities of MATLAB a system of number of numerical equations used for electrical modelling of bilayer organic solar cell are solved easily and in better way as compared to other programming languages. 3.9 References [1] B. P. Zeigler, Wiley, New York, (1976). [2] A. M. Law and W.D. Kelton, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill,  New York, (1991). [3] F. Haddix, Paper 01F-SIW-098, Proceedings of the Simulation Interoperability Workshop, Fall (2001). [4] A. Crespo-Mà ¡rquez, R. R. Usano and R. D. Aznar, Proceedings of International System Dynamics Conference, Cancun, Mexico, The System Dynamics Society, (1993), 58. [5] J. S. Kumari and C. S. Babu, International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), 2(1), (2012), 26-34. [6] P. Sudeepika, G.Md. G. Khan, International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical,Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, 3(3), (2014), 7823-7829. [7] M. Abdulkadir, A. S. Samosir, A. H. M. Yatim, International Journal of Power Electronics and Drive System (IJPEDS), 3(2), (2013), 185-192. [7] L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Ingana, Journal of Applied Physics, 86, (1999), 487-496. [8] A. Cheknane, T. Aernouts, M. M. Boudia, ICRESD-07, (2007), 83 – 90. [9] I. Hwang, C. R. M. Neill, and N. C. Greenham, Journal of Applied Physics, 106, (2009), 094506:1-10. [10] W. Vervisch, S. Biondo, G. Rivià ¨re, D. Duchà ©, L. Escoubas, P. Torchio, J. J. Simon, and J. L. Rouzo, Applied Physics Letters, 98, (2011), 253306:1-3. [11] M. Casalegno, A. Bernardi, G. Raos, J. Chem. Phys., 139(2), (2013). [12] J. M. Foster, J. Kirkpatrick, and G. Richardson, Journal of Applied Physics, 114, (2013), 104501:1-15. [13] A. Knight, CRC Press LLC, (2000). [14] R. K. Maddalli , Indian Journal of Computer Science and Engineering, 3(3), (2012), 406-10. [15] Z. M. Kazimovich and S. Guvercin, International Journal of Computer Applications, 41(8), (2012), 1-5. [16] A. B. Kisabo, A. C. Osheku, A. M. Adetoro, A. Lanre and A. Funmilayo, International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 3(8), (2012), 1-7. [17] V. Nehra, I.J. Intelligent Systems and Applications, 05, (2014), 1-24. [18] S. Nema, R. K. Nema, and G. Agnihotri, International Journal of Energy and Environment, 1(3), (2010), 487500. [19] M. Edouard, D. Njomo, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 3(9), (2013), 24-32.

Monday, August 19, 2019

The Awakening :: Personal Narrative Essays

The Awakening As I strolled through the door of the old stone building of the Danish Folk High School in Sønderborg, Denmark, I had no inclination of what I was supposed to be thinking. From the moment when we arrived in Copenhagen, the concept of the Folk High School was thrown at us in many different ways and I, maybe still in a wary state of jetlag, never grasped it. When we first arrived, I could not fathom the concept of a high school student finishing their studies and, en-lieu of moving on to college, chooses instead to give up a precious year of his or her life to go to a folk high school. "A school with no grades?" I balked back at a professor of mine who was telling us of the origins of the schools, "why would anyone want to waste their time going to one of them?" It was with this preconceived stereotype of mine that I reluctantly entered the building. "Bizarre," I remember as the first word spoken from my lips to a friend of mine as we were gathered in a large group together in the school's auditorium for the opening lecture. "This place reminds me of the YMCA back in my home town," I added, trying to make a common ground with something I was very familiar with in my life. It was not that I was trying to put the school down on a first judgment, for the place did in fact remind me a great deal of my local Y. With it's small, cramped dorm-rooms, musty pool and locker-room facilities, and tiny, hardwood floor gyms, it's a wonder I did not break down in a fit of home-sickness. Through the entirety of the Principal's speech, I remember wondering back to my original thought of why a high-school graduate would want to go to one of these schools. The Principal only touched upon this pressing issue of mine from a very distant perspective. He noted how the Folk High School we were currently visiting had a sports oriented curriculum, and thus most of students went on to work as a trainer or a head coach of a particular sport. I was not that naïve to believe that of the ninety plus students currently enrolled in the school, all ninety would go on to a sports related job in their future.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Teaching Philosophy Statement :: Education Teachers Classroom Essays

Teaching Philosophy Statement â€Å"I touch the future. I teach.† Christa McAuliffe’s statement about touching the future is how I feel about teaching. Being passionate about teaching and wanting to help and inspire the youth of America is my philosophy. Teaching is not always thought of as the noblest career choice, but in my eyes it is. Without the inspiration of good teachers there would be no doctor, lawyers or other teachers. I agonized over the decision of what career path to take, but it all became so clear my senior year of high school. I thought of all the teachers who had inspired me in years past to do my best and not to give up, and that is when I decided I wanted to be a teacher. There were a few teachers that made me feel they really cared about my education and my future. That is the kind of teacher I strive to be. I hope I can inspire my students to do something great with their lives. Although I was happy with my decision everyone I told thought I was crazy to want to purs ue such a â€Å"thankless job† as they called it. I saw it in another light though; teaching is something I knew would be right for me. Teachers have the ideal work schedule I think. I may have some paper work to do or school functions to attend, but this job will allow me to spend time with my family. If I decided to have children this would allow me to have the quality time I want to spend with them also. Overall the positive aspects of teaching greatly out weigh the negative ones from my point of view. My major is physical education and health, which will allow me to teach something I am passionate about; physical fitness. I believe for a student to be well balance they have to feel good and feel good about themselves. In today’s society of video games and computers children are leading more and more sedentary lifestyles. As a P.E. teacher I hope to change that and teach kids healthy habits for long-term fitness. As part of the â€Å"New P.E.† generation I think the skill-based learning with be more effective than simply just letting kids play games that they don’t have the skill for.

Heroes and Cowards in A Farewell To Arms, by Ernest Hemingway :: A Farewell To Arms

   War creates only two types of men: heroes and cowards.   In the book, A Farewell To Arms by Ernest Hemingway, Mr. Frederic Henry was an American Lieutenant ambulance driver in the Italian Army. "The army was staying in Gorizia, a little town that had been captured by the Italian army" (5). The town looked across a river and the plains to the mountains. There was fighting going on in those mountains, only a mile away. One evening when Frederic came in the house after doing some work on his ambulance, his friend Rinaldi took him to a hospital to meet a nurse who was a friend of Rinaldi's. Frederic thought that Miss Barkley was very pretty and good looking. Frederic started seeing Miss Catherine Barkley on a regular basis. "Frederic got orders to take two ambulances and three other drivers and go to the war front, up the river in Plava" (54). They were to pick up as many of the wounded as they could and deliver them to the hospitals where their papers said to take them. When he got up to Plava late in the evening, Frederic found out that there was a plan for a military strike that night. They were ordered to stay there and wait for the strike to take place before they left, so they wouldn't get hit by the bombardment. All of the drivers were to stay in a dugout in the riverbank while the strike was going on. There was all kinds of gun fire and bomb shells being shot back and forth. "The drivers were all in the dugout eating noodles and cheese while drinking wine" (55), when a bomb shell hit the dugout, killing one of the drivers and wounding Mr. Henry as well as one of the other drivers. Frederic was hit in the legs by the objects that were in the bomb, one of his knees was blown down around his shin. One of the drivers took him to the medical tents to get bandages put on his legs until they could get him back to a hospital. "The army sent Frederic to an American hospital in Milan" (77). This hospital had just been built and they needed nurses there. The hospital in Gorizia transferred Miss Barkley to the hospital in Milan. She was one of the nurses looking after Frederic while he was in the hospital.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

How Can We Explain the Difference in Achievement with Boys and Girls?

How can we explain the differences in achievement between boys and girls? Statistics show that it is clear that girls achieve more A* to C grades at GCSE then boys. This obviously shows that girls do better and achieve more in schools. In fact, since 1980 to the present day, the percentage of boys who have achieved these grades has risen. But so has the girls. When it comes to girls and boys choosing their options for GCSE, although they are open to pick the same subjects, there still seems to be a split. Girls tend to op for cookery, design technology and sociology. Whereas boys tend to op for resistant materials, P.E and science. So it is clear that there are the ‘boys’ and ‘girls’ subjects. One way the difference is shown in achievement is by setting and streaming in different schools. It is more common for girls to be placed in top set for all their subjects then it is for boys. Girls tend to do better in school then boys. This could be influenced by a t eacher (self- fulfilling prophecy). If girls and some boys are told that they are capable of getting great grades in school, then they are bound to achieve better than other students that are put in bottom set and are told they can only get a D or E, which are mostly boys.This shows that there is a difference between the achievement of boys and girls because girls are more likely to be placed in top set and are encouraged by their teachers to do well, whereas boys are not. Another way the difference is shown is by society and through the jobs that different gender roles take. There has been a divide in women and men jobs for a while. However now, there are increasing job opportunities for women. It is still known that women are more likely to take up jobs like nursing, caring, teaching and so on then it is for men.Men usually take up the job of mechanics, firemen, policemen etc. So in schools, they prepare the students for the job they believe is right for their gender. This shows t hat there are differences because boys must need to be more educated for the jobs they are required to get, whereas girls don’t need to be as much. If boys are ‘more’ educated then girls, then they are more likely to get better grades, but that still doesn’t explain why girls are achieving better than boys! Individual attitudes have a big impact on how a student achieves.Girls tend to always do their homework, always be well behaved and are in the pro- school subculture. Whereas boys tend to never do their homework, always misbehave and are in the anti-school subculture. This shows that girl want to do well in school to have a good life and a well-paid job, but it also shows that boys don’t really care about school and haven’t really thought about their future. This shows that there is a difference in achievement between girls and boys because girls have a better opinion of school and so will achieve better grades then boys as they have a neg ative opinion of school.It’s not that boys’ do less well. Boys’ achievement has been improving but girls have been improving more. All the matters that I have stated are linked. They all seem to state that girls achieve better in school than boys and that boys take their education for granted. There is also a link with boys and girls attainment. Boys tend to be at school less than girls and girls have better punctuality then boys. So, we can conclude that girls achieve better than boys because of their positive attitudes, actually wanting a good life and a good education.